By Bernice Glatzer-Rosenthal, Martha Bohachevsky-Chomiak
The religious revival that's sweeping the Soviet Union at the present time had its genesis within the non secular renaissance of the early twentieth century. In either situations, it was once lay intellectuals, dissatisfied with simplistic positivism and materialism, who tailored Russian orthodoxy to trendy lifestyles. Their rules reverberated, not just in faith and philosophy, yet in paintings, literature, portray, theater and movie. Banned via the Soviet govt in 1922, the writings of the non secular renaissance have been rediscovered within the Brezhnev period through a brand new iteration of Soviet intellectuals upset with Marxism. Circulating from hand at hand in unlawful typewritten versions (samizdat), they exerted an evergrowing effect on Soviet society, from the very best all the way down to traditional humans. lower than the recent coverage of glasnost, the govt. itself is presently reprinting their works. the choices integrated during this quantity mirror the profundity and breadth in their suggestion and are provided in English for the 1st time. the popularity of the common want and importance of non secular values and beliefs united this differently heterogeneous team and bears witness to the range in their method of the fundamental problems with the human situation. The centrality of those lay intellectuals' issues transcends the specifics of the historic state of affairs in early twentieth century Russia and makes their writings proper to the common human situation. so as of visual appeal, the choices are: VLADIMIR SOLOVYOV, The Enemy from the East, The Russian nationwide excellent; NIKOLAI GROT, at the actual initiatives of Philosophy; SERGEI DIAGHILEV, advanced Questions; VASILLY V. ROZANOV, On Sweetest Jesus and the sour culmination of the realm; NIKOLAI BERDIAEV, Socialism as faith; SERGEI BULGAKOV, An pressing activity; VIACHISLAV IVANOV, trouble of Individualism, GEORGII CHULKOV, On Mystical Anarchism; DMITRI S. MEREZHKOVSKY, Revolution and faith, The Jewish query As a Russian query; GEORGII FLOROVSKY, on the earth of Quests and Wanderings; PAVEL NOVGORODTSEV, The Essence of the Russian Orthodox recognition; PETR STRUVE, The Intelligentsia and the nationwide Face; ANDREI BELY, Revolution and tradition; ALEKSANDR BLOK, Catiline; EVGENY TRUBETSKOI, The Bolshevist Utopia and the non secular stream.
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Additional resources for A Revolution of the Spirit: Crisis of Value in Russia, 1890-1924
A philo-Semite, he spoke out against pogroms and against Russia's persecution of its Jewish minority. He found the political preoccupation of the intelligentsia questionable and their maximalism abhorrent. But his experiences with organized power (Church, state, and public opinion) were bitter enough to make him aware of the rights of the individual and to defend them. He spoke of every man's being a moral autocrat18 and, thus, for all his criticism of the intelligentsia shared their views of basic human rights.
Moreover, many Bolsheviks, including Lenin, assumed that bourgeois culture, values, and attitudes, including religion, would die out naturally in a socialist society. Marxist theory regarded religion and culture as part of the superstructure that grows out of and is determined by the economic base. Thus, most Bolsheviks believed that a socialist economy would engender its own distinctive culture, including a new proletarian, rather than bourgeois, morality. In the spring of 1921, however, the New Economic Policy (NEP) was instituted.
Turning their gaze inward, focusing on personal rather than social questions, discussing metaphysics rather than politics and society, they tried to divorce religion from its association with reaction and pursued philosophic inquiry for the sake of truth. Disoriented, suffering from a spiritual malaise, they were receptive to foreign philosophic and aesthetic influences as sources of inspiration and renewal. Perceiving the imminent demise of old Russia, they looked to history, especially classical Greece and Rome and the Renaissance, for guidance in their own personal and national situations.
A Revolution of the Spirit: Crisis of Value in Russia, 1890-1924 by Bernice Glatzer-Rosenthal, Martha Bohachevsky-Chomiak