By A. E. Athanasiou DDS MSD DrDent
Aristotle collage of Thessaloniki, Greece. Reference at the most crucial theoretical and sensible features of cephalometric radiography, for medical and learn orthodontists. Case reviews. Halftone and colour illustrations in numerous codecs. 19 individuals, 6 U.S.
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Additional info for Orthodontic Cephalometry
Am] Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 100:259-65. Bjork A (1947) The face in profile. Suenska Tandlak TW40(suppl5B):32-3. Broadbent BH Sr, Broadbent BH Jr, Golden W H (1975) Bolton Standards of Dentofacial Developmental Growth. ) Burstone CJ (1958) The integumental profile. Am | J Orthod 44:1-25. Burstone CJ, James RB, Legan H, iMurphy GA, Norton L (1978) Cephalometrics for orthognathic surgery. / Oral Surg 36:269-77. Coben SE (1986) Basion Horizontal: An Integrated Concept of Craniofacial Growth and Cephalometric Analysis.
The pharynx is open anteriorly to the nasal cavity (5), the oral cavity (6), and the larynx (7). It is divided into three parts: the nasopharynx, the oropharynx, and the laryngopharynx. Nasopharynx The nasopharynx (8) is the upper part of the pharynx. It is situated behind the oral cavity (6) above the soft palate (9). Its superior border is the base of the skull (1, 2). In the posterior part of the roof and the upper part of the posterior wall, there is an accumulation of lymphoid tissue - the adenoid or pharyngeal tonsil (10) - which may be prominent in children but which becomes indistinct in adult hood.
44) • APMan - anterior landmark for determining the length of the mandible - it is defined as the perpendicular dropped from Pog to the mandibular plane (Rakosi); • Ar - articulare - the point of intersection of the images of the posterior border of the condylar process of the mandible and the inferior border of the basilar part of the occipital bone (bilater al) (redefined by Coben after Bjork); B - Point B (or sm, supramentale) - the point at the deepest midline concavity on the mandibu lar symphysis between infradentale and pogonion (unilateral) (Downs); Co, condylion (or cd) - the most superior point on the head of the condylar head (bilateral); Gn - gnathion - this is the most anteroinferior point on the symphysis of the chin, and it is con structed by intersecting a line drawn perpendic ular to the line connecting Mc and Pog; however, it has been defined in a number of ways, includ ing as the lowest point of the chin, which is syn onymous with menton; Go - gonion - the constructed point of intersec tion of the ramus plane and the mandibular plane; Id - infradentale - the highest and most anterior point on the alveolar process, in the median plane, between the mandibular central incisors (unilateral); m - the most posterior point on the mandibular symphysis (unilateral); Me - menton - the most inferior midline point on the mandibular symphysis (unilateral); Pog - pogonion - the most anterior point of the bony chin in the median plane (unilateral); Pog' - pogonion prime - the point of tangency of a perpendicular from the mandibular plane to the most prominent convexity of the mandibular symphysis (Coben).
Orthodontic Cephalometry by A. E. Athanasiou DDS MSD DrDent