By Stewart J. Brown, Timothy Tackett
Throughout the tumultuous interval of global heritage from 1660 to 1815, 3 advanced hobbies mixed to convey a basic cultural reorientation to Europe and North the United States, and eventually to the broader international. The Enlightenment reworked perspectives of nature and of the human ability to grasp nature. The non secular reawakenings introduced a revival of heart-felt, experiential Christianity. ultimately revolution, the political and social upheavals of the overdue eighteenth and early 19th centuries, challenged demonstrated principles of divine-right monarchies and divinely ordained social hierarchies, and promoted extra democratic govt, notions of human rights and non secular toleration. a brand new spiritual weather emerged, during which humans have been likely to glance to their very own emotions and studies for the foundation in their religion. in this similar interval, Christianity unfold broadly all over the world due to colonialism and missions, and replied in assorted how one can its encounters with different cultures and non secular traditions.
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Additional resources for The Cambridge history of Christianity. Vol. 7, Enlightenment, reawakening and revolution 1660-1815
Although symptoms of de-Christianization have been detected, Europe was really at its most Christianized, its populations ready to be mobilized against ‘Enlightened’ opposition to Christianity. One should not forget that, in a moderate form, Catholic opinion had its own Enlightenment imperatives. The increased importance of natural rights and Enlightenment debate shifted consciousness away from the denominational group to the individual believer. Joseph’s Edict of Toleration extended newly deﬁned rights from previous areas of denominational co-existence into the areas of Catholic uniformity.
Alumni of Francke’s educational empire found posts as teachers across Europe. As early as 1706, some went as missionaries to India, and this was just the beginning of a wide network of international contacts and connections. Francke’s success would not have been possible without the guiding hand of Spener in Berlin, and certainly not without the special privileges and the protection that he received from the Hohenzollern court. The Hohenzollern dynasty had converted to Calvinism in the early seventeenth century, and they were now ruling a state with a strong Lutheran majority that had close ties to the local estates.
In fact, the king’s reckless policy of extracting Unigenitus from a very reluctant Clement XI in 1713 would greatly destabilize French politics after his death. Cardinal Fleury’s long ministry (1726–42) saw a ﬁrm, resourceful handling of the Jansenist question by one who in his own person embodied the institutional overlap between church and state in eighteenth-century France. Fleury in the 1730s, having declared Unigenitus a law of the French state, relied primarily on patronage to install moderates of his own cast into key vacancies in the church.
The Cambridge history of Christianity. Vol. 7, Enlightenment, reawakening and revolution 1660-1815 by Stewart J. Brown, Timothy Tackett